The layer of the atmosphere located between the stratosphere and the ionosphere, where temperatures drop rapidly with increasing height. It extends between 31 and 50 miles (17 to 80 kilometers) above the earth’s surface.
The gaseous or air portion of the physical environment that encircles a planet. In the case of the earth, it is held more or less near the surface by the earth’s gravitational attraction. The divisions of the atmosphere include the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the ionosphere, and the exosphere.
The layer of the atmosphere located between the troposphere and the mesosphere, characterized by a slight temperature increase and absence of clouds. It extends between 11 and 31 miles (17 to 50 kilometers) above the earth’s surface. It is the location of the earth’s ozone layer.
A complex atmospheric zone of ionized gases that extends between 50 and 400 miles (80 to 640 kilometers) above the earth’s surface. It is located between the mesosphere and the exosphere and is included as part of the thermosphere.
The measure of molecular motion or the degree of heat of a substance. It is measured on an arbitrary scale from absolute zero, where the molecules theoretically stop moving. It is also the degree of hotness or coldness. In surface observations, it refers primarily to the free air or ambient temperature close to the surface of the earth.